Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'wisdom'.



More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


Forums

  • Courtyard
    • Welcome
    • Daoist Discussion
    • General Discussion
    • The Rabbit Hole
    • Forum and Tech Support
  • The Tent

Found 14 results

  1. BUDDHA AMITABHA

    Extensive and detailed information on Buddha Amitabha https://buddhaweekly.com/amitabha-buddha-infinite-light-whats-name-merits-vast-name-amitabha-practice-synonymous-compassion-happiness/?fbclid=IwAR3XkVoXlL3Dc9ozoMY3BwAG30xNX31cqzO8520rOZD66z8ATB3mxfWlRno
  2. What problem?

    From the great Captain Jack Sparrow... “The problem is not the problem. Your problem is your attitude toward the problem.”
  3. What are internal practices suitable for self-study? It's an interesting question with two complementary answers. There is the perspective of complete formal practice that allows the practitioner to advance from complete naivety to mastery within its self-contained systemic framework. The other view is that of wisdom and insight into what the this thing "self" that we consider as defining, or confining, us really is. This wisdom aspect is the vitally important element which enables the formal routines to provide benefit and success. Wisdom The general benefit of wisdom deals with karma, both positive and negative, which is our desiring and rejecting habitual view of relating ourselves to our experiences. This is practical observation and not intellectual deduction merely. When a baby is born all pretty much all she does is to shit, cry, and smile. The baby doesn't have any functioning conception of self-worth for herself or for others. This doesn't prevent her from experiencing life and reality naturally like a human baby does. Only later in the childhood would she learn that people assign worthiness to their experiences and infectiously project these out of their persons. A labeled world of good and bad phenomena is traded around like collectible card games, and the only way out of this is to realize that it is a game that can be suspended or quit. The path of wisdom is returning to that earlier puerile innocence that didn't see the world through permanent divisive categories or absolute judgements: we call this nonduality. It asks for genuine inquiry, curiosity, and taking into account the context of experiences. The world and its people reveal themselves as they are: sometimes sweet, sometimes annoying, often helpful, and rarely committed to wisdom. None of these observations are anything but transitory insights into human condition, which makes no impact to our innate worth how we are free to evaluate and judge our worthiness or just leave it as undefined like it naturally is. It's about opening up instead of closing in. Please do not see what I described as any sort of nihilism or radical equalization of all experiences. Defaulting views to nothingness or indifference are marks of not having much understanding nor insight. The high point of wisdom is to train and live through a natural relaxed and flexible view that easily defaults to undefined. The real you is spontaneous and true to your own innate goodness underneath those impulsive habits that cloud it. There are many ways to approach purifying karma, but all have the same fundamental flavors of becoming fully aware of your own suffering and that this limited view is not the entire picture or permanent at all. Yogis can train their familiarity with the open awareness all living beings have in common or they can offer their selfless service to the world in the face of abuse and scorn, up to the point of martyrdom. Make no mistake: The real challenge of wisdom is in facing all your fears and disdain. All the things you would rather avoid and not confront are the very same poisons that when taken in correct doses with good skill become antidotes and medicine that sets you free from these compulsions. Suddenly you feel liberated: much lighter and healthier. What a bliss, what a silly way it was to trap yourself in such a meaningless bubble! In the Western world we have relatively little active culture into the study and preservation of universal wisdom. This problem can be solved through studying some living wisdom tradition and looking into the process of inquiring into one's limited conceptions of self. For this purpose I have looked into some good and short videos that give insight into how people's perceptions of stress and themselves can give rise to real life changing skills and realizations. The core wisdom here is that if you want to change yourself and your sense of self, then you should first have a healthy and strong sense of self. Assorted Videos about Self-Compassion and Emotional Welfare Getting a Clue about Wisdom and Virtue (De) For a good introduction to a wisdom tradition that can take you all the way to complete enlightenment I recommend Shanrendao. It's inspired by the Confucian tradition where the central teachings is that the person should seek to perfect his role and function in the society and within his family, gracefully and gratefully accept all "polishing" others may unkindly serve him, and still remain true to himself and not suppress his emotions and desires. The formula is simple, but difficult to master because people might be unable to express their emotions in a true or meaningful ways. More about this later. I personally have a strong liking towards Confucian view of De because it is all-encompassing and emphasizes that cultivation truly isn't about this or that formal technique, but becoming wise and genuine person with a crystal clear conscience. This lesson is especially important in our age. With Confucian healing and wisdom in mind, I highly recommend the books Let the Radiant Yang Shine Forth: Lectures on Virtue by Liu Yousheng and Twelve Characters: A Transmission of Wang Fengyi's Teachings. Below is a diagram that shows Wang Fengyi's Shanrendao tradition's insights into the classic Five Elemental Processes and how they connect to different human frameworks. These can also be useful in diagnosis which is clearly presented in the clinical healing cases of Liu Yousheng's magnificent book. There currently is another English translation of Wang Fengyi's teachings available: Discourse on Transforming Inner Nature. Both this and the Twelve Characters book are among the clearest expositions of spiritual cultivation that I have found anywhere. Wang Fengyi masterfully illuminates the similarities and differences in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. Teachings about Open Awareness, Meditation and Nondual Wisdom C T's excellent topic is a treasure trove of both Buddhist and universal wisdom: Click here to see what Steve suggested on this thread. Click here to see what dwai suggested on this thread. Formal Practices The problem with formal self-study is two-fold: it typically hinders cultivating the peace of heart and body correctly. Without confessing these as the primary way there is no true cultivation or satisfaction happening, but the genesis of agitation. Emotions Must Be Addressed First Your heart is the window to your entire being. If you have a lot of wild emotions that are easily stirred, then it's guaranteed that your mind will not know peace, but always search for channels for that restlessness. The most critical foundation for internal training and safe energetics is that the emotions must be healed through what could be called a process of acceptance, balance, and integration. If emotions flare, then the body's vital energies are diverted into excessive tantrums that weaken the whole bodymind complex. This weakens and counteracts any healing that is supposed to happen naturally, and strong emotions are a contraindication for energetic practice because they may cause deviations. Therefore it's an incontestable premise that calmness of heart is the way to vitality and energy, but it must happen naturally through wisdom and not by forcing. Suppressing emotions is unhealthy. It shuns the wisdom and awareness of experiences as they are, so it sets the stage for growing psychological and ethical issues if not addressed early enough. These are deviations from proper practice which, if perpetuated, will almost certainly lead to unwholesome trance states. Bliss and pleasure seeking are often convenient masks for not wanting to deal with uncomfortable emotions or traumas. There is nothing wrong in either as such, but forceful desires and "positive attitude" will not genuinely calm the heart. Please this topic I wrote about psychic trance states that flawed practice and emergence of psychic shadows can cause: For instant karmic cleansing and emotional balancing, the most rudimentary things you could do relate to your emotions. You could offer sincere and deeply heartfelt personal apologies for every tantrum you have projected onto others; you could try acting out difficult emotions, maybe in a social setting like improvisation theater hobby; and you could do exercises like Trauma Releasing Exercises (TRE) that are designed to unwind traumatic emotions that the human body might suppress and keep inside (see the works of David Bercelli and Peter Levine). Please consult your health care provider before trying the following exercise on your own and decide together whether it suits you. A Simple TRE Flavored Practice Please note that this exercise is not supposed to be Spontaneous Qigong or any other type of energetic exercise. It's just supposed get emotions out and help you relax. Another thing to consider that if you have a lot of stress and tension within your muscles and fascia, this probably is a sign that you have kept emotions inside in a very corporeal sense. In this case very spiritual practices can be unsuitable because they might provoke excess irritation, unstable mind, and general disconnect and floating attitude towards mundane activities. TRE is one way to help improve the situation because it removes tension, but so also is the traditional Chinese standing exercise Zhan Zhuang (ZZ). You would have to be mindful that not all ZZ teachings and standing poses are equal, and that those starting with energy body activation may be unsuitable for beginners with bad health. Static standing exercises like Zhan Zhuang in internal martial arts offer simplicity and stability, but finding the correct beneficial physical alignment on your own can be very difficult, and especially so if starting when in ill health and a tense body. If your Zhan Zhuang doesn't make your cry or challenge your comfort zone while standing extended periods, then you probably should look into finding better instructions because getting that deep seated tension off your body really requires facing discomfort. It's a painful process for a while, but when done carefully and correctly, you will be much relieved. Getting into Energetics There are following main factors that make the formal internal practice good for self-study: 1. Safety (It's difficult to fumble with the practice. Mostly safe even for pregnant women and the fetus.) 2. Effectiveness (Brings good and clear results every time.) 3. Ease (Allows good practice from beginner level to complete mastery.) 4. Completeness (Not a sprawling system, but a clear sense of defined practices and progression with them.) All of these together lead to the summit that the practice is really self-correcting and can be well traveled without any teacher's supervision, continual corrections, or amending with advanced instructions. It's an evergreen fare on this forum that people come looking for practices as a means to satisfy some fixed personal desire. Often this fixity is then channeled as meeting some whimsical aim and urge to take forceful control that deviates from the laid back wisdom of true contemplative and peaceful heart. Therefore there's a lot of room for creating errors. Not only are many people dissatisfied with simple and efficient exercises, but they want also to modify what they have previously seen or create their own brand new fad methods in order to evoke a sense of external mastery. Some are more modest and publicly only claim high mastery in kungfu or meditation without making alterations to established standards. All these are signs of self-initiation, which is in contrast to an open minded and respectful self-study. Yes, it's entirely possible to train energy in a multitude of different ways, but not all of them are beneficial in the long term or fostering fair character development. Safety is another factor that can't be neglected especially when learning on your own. Please see the following topic I wrote about Qi deviations: There are simple moving exercises in many Qigong styles, but even in these people may err while learning on their own or forget to foster adequate physical relaxation. Also, this forum has witnessed many occasions where a disgruntled practitioner lashes out against his teacher because the physical movement apparently invites overtly critical examination and experimentation. Therefore I have a bias against recommending very physical practices for people wishing to study on their own. Visualization practices are an endless mire because they don't easily offer the mind to really relax and diffuse the baseline agitation nor shed the desire to imagine new ways to cut the practice short. How could it then result in correct outcomes? The most difficult part really is that no instruction is foolproof for teaching how to not stir the heart, but gracefully accept even difficult emotions and thoughts that may surface and witness them with laid back awareness. If this obstacle is overcome, then the self-study has a chance to bear fruit. Some practices are more forgiving with them such that Flying Phoenix doesn't require mental stillness for effectiveness and Fragrant Qigong encourages an idle mind so strongly that it's okay to watch TV while practicing. I really am recommending you to think how you would like to practice, what are your lifestyle restrictions, and what you are after. There are upsides and downsides to every practice. Some styles don't mix well with others and some require adhering to specific precautions unless you wish to get sick. Video instructions only rarely feature complete exercises without withholding the internal development and lineage skills as closed secrets. These that I have found and presented below have in-built safety mechanisms that also reinforce good results, unless deliberately acted against that design. However, the characteristic feature always is simplicity and effectiveness. These written instruction often are the best of complete arts that were detailed in popular booklets during the China's booming Qigong craze. These are simple enough instruction that they could be printed out and distributed. You will have to seek my suggested formal practices from authoritative sources. I have linked the best I could find. Video Instructions Flying Phoenix - Features breath sequencing that quickly activates spinal energy, which makes its static standing exercises uncharacteristically very safe and powerful for self-learning. It also features moving and sitting meditations. Fragnant Qigong (Xiang Gong) - Very simple movements and powerful effects, but the practice has a lot of prohibitions. There apparently are flawed public demonstrations circulating in the Internet, so it must be learned from an authentic source. Wu Wei Qigong by George Xu - Supposedly activates an esoteric wheel in the belly to cultivate energy throughtout the day, which is similar to Falun Gong's Qigong but without its limitations. Written Instructions Relaxation Qigong (Fang Song Gong) - Relaxation as a way to deep meditation, therefore dismisses forms and takes it the easy way. For advanced practitioners it provides a cool way to do meta-acupuncture for oneself. Longevity Self-Massage (Bedside Baduajin) - A quick and simple set of external massages, but supplements with an internal aspect that is a great way to get into Buddhist flavored Anapanasati meditation. Final Words Did you enjoy it? I sincerely hope so! I will keep updating this Internal Arts primer article if I receive convincing arguments why some certain viewpoints or practices should be included. Please bear in mind that I am keeping the bar very high and I will not include anything without careful examination. Examples of what will not qualify for self-study: Taiji Qigong Shibashi, all spontaneous Qigong styles without any exception. If you don't understand why, then read my article again and contemplate what might be missing. My thanks go to @C T, @dwai, @steve, and @freeform for their helpful suggestions and inspiration they have kindly provided.
  4. Artists of Life: Kathryn King and Wayne Adams dropping pearls! Sharing deep wisdom realized in their life living off grid in a home they've built over the course of 27 years. They built this small floating off grid world entirely from recycled materials. The entire thing floats on reused fish farming structure and the structures are built from salvaged materials. They gather driftwood for heating and cooking wood. They both carve and work in various art forms. The colors they chose are magenta and green from the fireweed plant, the first to rebirth after forest fires. Their wisdom flows with a piercing calm, gentle and pervasively demonstrative of a life lived wholly and authentically. Various quotes that resonated: there isn't anything you do you don't need to maintain somehow... I'm still workin on it, everything's a process. Learn by doing... There's two types of schools and i've been to both. One's the institution, i say go. But also when you step out... choose your teachers... travel, experience. Get out of that little nest and do things. Get away from the high tech computer and use your hands, head and heart. What you can't learn in schools... life skill. Search for people, something that's for you, before you choose and take your time because it's a knowledge based lifestyle... it's not a freebie... take your time. don't be in a rush. a lifelong process... lose anything but your sense of humor. you'll be fine it's a big deal You gotta enjoy yourself. We enjoy each other, we like each other. I refuse to lose my sense of humor in this great big mess. I think it's ok to stop living a fear filled life. Don't be scared to have a life, get out there. Fear is there to be gotten over and worked through... If you can do that, then you can accomplish anything you want in your life.
  5. I recently had some conversations with one of my spiritual mentors and subsequently one of my spiritual brothers. The topic of being stable in the Self-knowledge came up. Being stable in the Self-knowledge to me means, never losing track of the fact that it is the Self that is witnessing all the drama which unfolds on a daily basis upon the body and the mind. Have a hard day at work or at home or in traffic or ______ (fill the blanks in)? If we get caught up in the issues (and hence suffering), then we are not stable in Self-knowledge. Because being stable means we will not suffer one bit. Even if the occurrences obfuscate our true blissful and unaffected nature for even an instant, in the very next instant the knowledge will pull us out of suffering, like a safety line will pull a bungee jumper out of the river as he/she takes a plunge. Being stable means our peaceful nature is never dependent on or is threatened by any occurrence or event. Our true nature is like the sky, which unaffected by the different shapes, sizes of clouds, winds and storms that blow across it. Similarly, irrespective of samsāra and its processes (good or bad), we are always the unaffected, unafflicted awareness.
  6. Hello, As I have been practicing and working on attachments and identity. I have reached a state where i have dis-identified myself with my inner self, thoughts, past and such inner stories of me. but now i m stuck with deriving a sense of self and identity from other people, as how people perceive me. I used to be more of an introverted person, but now i m more of an extroverted person, as the need to have an identity is itching and needed from outside Because i need a kind of purpose or a reason to move and live life. I m not taking the choice to release the identity yet, because in process of doing that, i started being sad, and feeling purposeless. Less motivate to live and no passion to life. I have nothing to live for or something to exist for which makes me feel useless and why i exist? Any help or suggestion is appreciated.
  7. My attempt at sharing

    For whose who know me on this forum, I am known for “hogging” information from kind people without returning the favor. I just found an amazing book however, which is quite rare and it covers a variety of topics, from mirror scrying to magnetism and remote influence. The book is written by Dupotet and is called Magic and Magnetism. Here is a pdf: https://www.woodlibrarymuseum.org/library/pdf/S_ADVG.PDF
  8. Find the Fire?

    "Find that fire inside you." The popular modern term to incite motivation and enthusiasm in an individual. To find one's fire is to seek one's goals with determination and straightforwardness that cowers to no obstacle. A mighty forest born of ages long past cannot withstand a spark that ignites a fire, how could one's obstacles or enemies possibly contend? Ah, but however strong and everlasting the fire inside may burn, the inevitable reality comes to pass. Fire may only exist as long as there is fuel to sustain it. The "fire inside" one's motivation, the drive factor, is impossible to attain without fuel. The fuel for one's fire can be described in many ways, and thought of in different forms. Let us begin to forgo the illusions and be more straightforward. Fire is fueled by the ego. Fueled by the self. Whatever myriad form it may take is irrelevant, because determination, hate, sorrow, humiliation, shame, anger, and other forms of ego motivated emotions will always supply a finite amount of fuel for one's fire. An individual feels a response, then a burst of flame. But a raging fire will always settle into kindling. For those who seek motivation, fuel, who often delve with fire, I offer my favorite chapter of the Tao Te Ching: Chapter 15 The ancient masters were subtle, mysterious, profound, responsive. The depth of their knowledge is unfathomable. Because it is unfathomable, All we can do is describe their appearance. Watchful, like men crossing a winter stream. Alert, like men aware of danger. Courteous, like visiting guests. Yielding, like ice about to melt. Simple, like uncarved blocks of wood. Hollow, like caves. Opaque, like muddy pools. Who can wait quietly while the mud settles? Who can remain still until the moment of action? Observers of the Tao do not seek fulfilment. Not seeking fulfillment, they are not swayed by desire for change. This may not be my preferred translation, however it does help convey a truth. The fire inside is but an illusion. The ego is not the way, and one's inner self knows this reality. But let us ask, what can stop the water from falling? Is there a possibility for one man to cease a waterfall? Can a river's rapid course be diverted by the rocks that reside in its bed? Water has no emotion, as it yields to all things. A Taoist favorite among imagery, nevertheless, it is for a reason. If you are an individual in need of motivation, then observe water. Yield and go with the flow of events. When the times comes for you to crash like the massive waves of the ocean in a storm, then you will do so effortlessly. When morning comes and the water is calm and undisturbed, you will return as nature intended. There is no emotion, only the Tao.
  9. New to this site

    Hello My name is Peter, I just wanted to introduce myself. I have been on a spiritual search for decades and am still seeking absolute truth. I have determined that righteousness and meditation are major keys to consciousness and enlightenment. It has been quite a nightmare wading through the jungle of religions and lies which have been strewn across the pathway to Truth. I am here to learn and understand more. Thank you for listening to me.
  10. I really am exposing my inexperience here, but I'd like to ask the forum for some further information on an area of Taoism that I would like to know more about. I've heard said that in Toaism there are 5 so called "Cardinal Virtues": Righteousness, Wisdom, Benevolence, Propriety, and Fidelity (I've also heard a different account that there are 8 virtues to be reckoned with). In the Tao Te Ching I can find mention of some of these. For instance with verse 38 (the beginning of the second part of the text): 38(Those who) possessed in highest degree the attributes (of the Tao) did not (seek) to show them, and therefore they possessed them (in fullest measure). (Those who) possessed in a lower degree those attributes (sought how) not to lose them, and therefore they did not possess them (in fullest measure). (Those who) possessed in the highest degree those attributes did nothing (with a purpose), and had no need to do anything. (Those who) possessed them in a lower degree were (always) doing, and had need to be so doing. (Those who) possessed the highest benevolence were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had no need to be doing so. (Those who) possessed the highest righteousness were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had need to be so doing. (Those who) possessed the highest (sense of) propriety were (always seeking) to show it, and when men did not respond to it, they bared the arm and marched up to them. Thus it was that when the Tao was lost, its attributes appeared; when its attributes were lost, benevolence appeared; when benevolence was lost, righteousness appeared; and when righteousness was lost, the proprieties appeared. Now propriety is the attenuated form of leal-heartedness and good faith, and is also the commencement of disorder; swift apprehension is (only) a flower of the Tao, and is the beginning of stupidity. Thus it is that the Great man abides by what is solid, and eschews what is flimsy; dwells with the fruit and not with the flower. It is thus that he puts away the one and makes choice of the other. http://sacred-texts.com/tao/taote.htm I can also surmise that the lessons of Fidelity are strewn throughout the text with one particulary powerful example in verse 81 (where in the translation I link 'Fidelity' as a term is interchanged with 'sincerity'): 81Sincere words are not fine; fine words are not sincere. Those who are skilled (in the Tao) do not dispute (about it); the disputatious are not skilled in it. Those who know (the Tao) are not extensively learned; the extensively learned do not know it. The sage does not accumulate (for himself). The more that he expends for others, the more does he possess of his own; the more that he gives to others, the more does he have himself. With all the sharpness of the Way of Heaven, it injures not; with all the doing in the way of the sage he does not strive. http://sacred-texts.com/tao/taote.htm In my grappling with google, when I search for these terms in relation to Toaism I find various commentaries on the Tao Te Ching, people's personal musings on Taoism in general, but no other (as far as I can see) official canon. So my question is: 'Is there a classic text, or a school of Taoism that includes these things? And where are these virtues are enshrined, apart from in the Tao Te Ching?' It's a topic I'm profoundly interested in so any help will be much appreciated. Thanks.
  11. ...

    .
  12. Unorthodox translations of the TTC

    I found the following Text while messing about on the internet, Im always looking for diferent adaptations of the Tao Te Ching as well as personal input and interpretations people have posted arround. Not only do I find it incredibly amusing, I think it has a certain clarity you won't find in many other Taoism texts out there. I apologize for the inconvenience if it's been posted before. Link: http://cantbeatfun.com/Tao/tao_rh.htm A slice for your reviewing. adapted by Ron Hogan originally attributed to "Jesse Garon"[...]15The ancient Masters were pretty damn impressive.They were deep. Real deep.Words can't even begin to describe how deep they were.You can only talk about what they were like.They were careful, like a man walking on thin ice.They were cautious, like a soldier behind enemy lines.They were polite, like a guest at a party.They moved quickly, like melting ice. They were as plain as a block of wood.Their minds were as wide as a valley, and their hearts were as clear as spring water.Can you wait for that kind of openness and clarity before you try to understand the world?Can you stay still until events have unfolded before you do the right thing?When you act without expectations, you can accomplish great things. 16Clear your head.Stay calm.Watch as everything happens around you.Everything reverts to its original state, which was nothing.And whenever something becomes nothing, it gets right with Tao.If you don't understand that, you're going to screw up somewhere down the line.If you figure it out, you'll always know what to do.If you get right with Tao, you won't be afraid to die, because you know you will.
  13. Northern Wisdom: The Havamal, Tao of the Vikings http://www.amazon.co.../dp/B006Z800CY/ I read the old version of the Havamal for a Norse Mythology class, and found it very interesting. It's a collection of wise sayings from the Vikings, mythically attributed to Odin. Many of these wise ways of living aren't emphasized in our culture these days, but we'd totally benefit from learning and implementing them! This modern interpretation is pretty fantastic...it's a great compliment to the Tao Te Ching, in my opinion, for having small quotes to remember which can enrich our lives. The subject matter is much more practical in tone. Something interesting about the Viking culture is that they HIGHLY valued these types of wise sayings. They would memorize them, and often test each other's wisdom upon meeting...if they heard something that was new, they'd have another saying to impress upon their minds. It was like a friendly game of wits. They lived by these ideas...sometimes making really poor decisions, but with the intention of making the most effective decisions.
  14. The Game...

    The game of being has a 'time-out' box where beings enter not to be... the dreamless dream. Not-being involves accepting 'what is not' as being and holding "what is" as not being. 'Dualistic' notions of not-being reflect being within the dream. At all time Beings being none-beings remain within the not-being being unaware of being until the moment that what is impossible becomes possible and the impassable passage be passed. At any time a being can choose to wake up from the dreamless dream though thats impossible for a none-being to accomplish, for those who think they can't do it will not do it even if they could do it. For those who know, I have little to add for those who do NOT know I will say: - the man who refuses to see, and wishes not to see, sees without seeing where as the blind man, sees without seeing Some see 'seeing without seeing' as the key to see and to not see some know the elephant as the elephant! - "A ray of light suffices to enlighten and disintegrate darkness". Lies just disintegrate in the presence of the truth... and those who know and recognize the truth can experience all the possibilities and realities with a single thought (feeling understanding act) though they do not have to experience it all to know it all. I would like each and everyone to know the truth and be enlighten... and keep on watering the plants and chopping wood... What would you like be? Can a finite temporary experience include it all while also transcending the finite temporary experience? The enlightened know from experience the singular valid answer... believers know the stories told until they experience a singular transcendental enlightenment instant ... of course there are all sort of storytellers with all sort of captivating lines and all sort of motives... which do you seek to cultivate and contemplate.