exorcist_1699

Confucian Qi gong

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As I have noted, I will post as time permits and I don't have a lot of spare time right now, but the following is one of the earliest surviving mentions of Qigong in Chinese literature and is from Mencius, the 'second sage' of Confucianism:

2A:2
“May I ask in what it is that you are superior?”
曰、「我知言、我善養吾浩然之氣。」
“I understand language, and I am good at nourishing my vast qi.”
「敢問何謂浩然之氣。」
“What do you mean by ‘vast qi’”?
曰、「難言也。」 「其爲氣也、至大至剛以直 養而無害、則塞于天地之間。其爲氣也、配義與道無是、餒矣。是集義所生者、非義襲而取之也。行有不慊於心、則餒矣。我故曰、『吿子未嘗知義、』以其外之 也。必有事焉而勿正、心勿忘、勿助長也。無若宋人然。宋人有閔其苗之不長而揠之者芒芒然歸、謂其人曰、;『今日病矣、豫助苗長矣。』其子趨而往視之、苗則 槁矣。天下之不助苗長者寡矣。以爲無益而舍之者、不耘苗者也。助之長者、揠苗者也。非徒無益、而又害之。」
That is difficult to explain. qi can be developed to great levels of quantity and stability by correctly nourishing it and not damaging it, to the extent that it fills the space between Heaven and Earth. In developing qi, if you are connected with Justice and the Way, you will never be in want of it. It is something that is produced by accumulating Justice, and is not something that you can grab from superficial attempts at Justice. If you act without mental composure, you will become qi-starved.”
“Therefore I would say that Gao Zi has not yet understood Justice, since he regards it as something external. You must be willing to work at it, understanding that you cannot have precise control over it. You can't forget about it, but you can't force it to grow, either.”
“You don't want to be like the man from Song. There was a man from Song who was worried about the slow growth of his crops and so he went and yanked on them to accelerate their growth. Empty-headed, he returned home and announced to his people: ‘I am so tired today. I have been out stretching the crops.’ His son ran out to look, but the crops had already withered. Those in the world who don't ‘help their crops by pulling’ are few indeed. There are also those who regard all effort as wasteful and don't even weed their crops. But those who think they can hurry their growth along by forcing it, are not only not helping their qi, but actually harming it!” (Translated by Charles Muller, http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/mencius.html#div-4, Emphasis mine, ZYD)


I found a translation and text for a "Zhengqi Ge" and I assume this is the one to which earlier reference was made. Compare the bolded text above with that below:

正氣歌 Zheng Qi Ge
Song of Integrity

There is integrity that is embodied in various forms.
On the earth it is mountains and rivers, in the sky it is the sun and stars.
In man it is the noble spirit that fills up the whole world.
The imperial road should be cleared of barbarians and be flooded with light.
In times of great danger man’s high moral principle shows itself and leaves its record in history.

天地有正氣,雜然賦流形。
下則為河岳,上則為日星。
於人曰浩然,沛乎塞蒼冥。
皇路當清夷,含和吐明庭。
時窮節乃見,一一垂丹青。

(According to the poster the translation's " . . . origin is 中國華文教育網 Overseas Chinese Language and Culture Online.", http://www.silkqin.com/02qnpu/10tgyy/tg34zqg.htm, Emphasis mine, ZYD)


As I said the Confucian's were very subtle and hid the key to the secrets in plain sight. The 'Four Books', which I have mentioned in previous posts, were the basis of Chinese education for 700 years and the Koreans, Vietnamese and Japanese followed suit. Everybody knew them, not everybody understood them.

On page 110 of the book I cited about Confucian 'Qigong' there is a poem by Ming Dynasty Confucian poet, Gao Panlong:

 

Silent Sitting is not from Tao or Chan. We developed our art from sages wise.
Subduing emotions, righteous heart is born. Cosmic energy swells ere thoughts arise. Ours can be explained by ordinary means. There's no mystery nor supernatural way. When one day the supreme truth you see Enlightenment is natural you'll surely say. The infinite becomes clear and still.
No other way to accomplish this skill.
The cosmos has pulsated since ancient time. The sun and moon up the sky still climb. No need for elixir made by saints
Nor talks of the void by the wise.
Where our Confucian secret lies
Is before thoughts and feelings arise.

(The Art of Chi Kung by Wong Kiew Kit, Element Books, 1993, p. 110, Emphasis mine, ZYD)

 

Silent sitting is one of the primary forms of Confucian self-cultivation. The poet wants to make the point that it is not borrowed from other traditions, but is native to the the Confucian 'Dao'. The last two lines reference the teachings of the Zhongyong on Zhong, as the root of personal and cosmic existence:

 

喜、怒、哀、樂之未發、謂之中。發而皆中節、謂之和。中也者、天下之大本也。和也者、天下之達道也。致中和、天地位焉、萬物育焉。

 

When joy, anger, sorrow and pleasure have not yet arisen, it is called the Mean (中 centerness, equilibrium). When they arise to their appropriate levels, it is called “harmony” 和. The Mean is the great root of all-under-heaven. “Harmony” is the penetration of the Way through all-under-heaven. When the Mean and Harmony are actualized, Heaven and Earth are in their proper positions, and the myriad things are nourished.

(Charles Muller, http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/docofmean.html, Emphasis mine, ZYD)

 

Muller's translation is very good and anyone who wants to get some idea about the depth and profundity of Confucian doctrine will find this a good place to start.

 

I hope that this is helpful. I will post more as time permits.

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As I have noted, I will post as time permits and I don't have a lot of spare time right now, but the following is one of the earliest surviving mentions of Qigong in Chinese literature and is from Mencius, the 'second sage' of Confucianism:

I found a translation and text for a "Zhengqi Ge" and I assume this is the one to which earlier reference was made. Compare the bolded text above with that below:

As I said the Confucian's were very subtle and hid the key to the secrets in plain sight. The 'Four Books', which I have mentioned in previous posts, were the basis of Chinese education for 700 years and the Koreans, Vietnamese and Japanese followed suit. Everybody knew them, not everybody understood them.

On page 110 of the book I cited about Confucian 'Qigong' there is a poem by Ming Dynasty Confucian poet, Gao Panlong:

Silent sitting is one of the primary forms of Confucian self-cultivation. The poet wants to make the point that it is not borrowed from other traditions, but is native to the the Confucian 'Dao'. The last two lines reference the teachings of the Zhongyong on Zhong, as the root of personal and cosmic existence:

Muller's translation is very good and anyone who wants to get some idea about the depth and profundity of Confucian doctrine will find this a good place to start.

I hope that this is helpful. I will post more as time permits.

 

Thank you Sir. Great post, great effort. I really appreciate that. I am glad that I am communicating with a man of your caliber.

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The late Wang Peisheng studied Confucian qigong. It is mentioned on the US website of one of his students ( http://www.ycgf.org/ ). Possibly anyone interested might be able to get some more information from them.

 

Grand Master Wang Peisheng studied Buddhist Qigong with Liaoyi and Miaochan when he was thirteen. Then he studied Taoist Qigong with Shen Xinchuan and Wu Jinyong, and Confucianist Qigong with Jin Hu and Xu Zhenkuan. All these studies and practices allowed him not only to understand Qigong but also philosophy. Grand Master Wang and some famous masters, like Wang Daoyi, Wang Wanfang, Sun Xikun, etc, were good friends and also did a lot of research of Qigong practice together.

 

 

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The late Wang Peisheng studied Confucian qigong. It is mentioned on the US website of one of his students ( http://www.ycgf.org/ ). Possibly anyone interested might be able to get some more information from them.

Thank you MJJBecker.

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Zhongyongdaoist has answered most of the questions so what I can add seem not many, only a few as follows:


" consolidate all those desires for virtues , then qi will arise from it " ( 其爲氣....集義所生者) the words of Mencius may sound a little strange to many people , but it is really something crucial .


When people try initializing qi , they likely adopt the following ways : pay attention to certain area of their bodies ,maybe the forehead ; visualize something ,say a ball of light in between their hands ; or practice some body movements, likely Taiji...etc .


But there are some other possibilities.


A repeatedly quoted case in Confucian legacy is something like this : " Suppose people see a kid play on the edge of a river bank , and will soon fall into it , any human will immediately have a desire , arising from his or her heart , to rescue the kid; such a prompt desire without calculation ( whether it is my kid , my enemy's kid or will I get paid after rescuing him..etc) is said to be our deep conscience , which , if we hold it, expand it , then likely we can get a sense of qi , somehow similar to other methods we mentioned above."


I have to say , at first look , it sounds a little tricky to understand ....likely only people who had made a moral decision in more extreme situations , can grasp it ; for example, in a plane crash, while most of passengers were desperately rushing out of the plane, you as an ordinary passenger, decided to stay longer to see whether any persons who were still entangled and couldn't get out it , despite your knowing well the danger of such a choice ...at that moment , likely you were filled with some kind of moral courage , some kind of fearlessness that later would help you understand deeper what qigong practice is .
Edited by exorcist_1699
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Zhongyongdaoist has answered most of the questions so what I can add seem not many, only a few as follows:
" consolidate all those desires for virtues , then qi will arise from it " ( 其爲氣....集義所生者) the words of Mencius may sound a little strange to many people , but it is really something crucial .
When people try initializing qi , they likely adopt the following ways : pay attention to certain area of their bodies ,maybe the forehead ; visualize something ,say a ball of light in between their hands ; or practice some body movements, likely Taiji...etc .
But there are some other possibilities.
A repeatedly quoted case in Confucian legacy is something like this : " Suppose people see a kid play on the edge of a river bank , and will soon fall into it , any human will immediately have a desire , arising from his or her heart , to rescue the kid; such a prompt desire without calculation ( whether it is my kid , my enemy's kid or will I get paid after rescuing him..etc) is said to be our deep conscience , which , if we hold it, expand it , then likely we can get a sense of qi , somehow similar to other methods we mentioned above."
I have to say , at first look , it sounds a little tricky to understand ....likely only people who had made a moral decision in more extreme situations , can grasp it ; for example, in a plane crash, while most of passengers were desperately rushing out of the plane, you as an ordinary passenger, decided to stay longer to see whether any persons who were still entangled and couldn't get out it , despite you knew well the danger of such a choice ...at that moment , likely you were filled with some kind of moral courage , some kind of fearlessness that later would help you understand deeper what qigong practice is .

 

Thank you. Very inspiring post. You have mentioned well known examples from a very different angle. It would be very interesting to learn Confucian qigong and explore the differences with Daoist schools.

Edited by Isimsiz Biri

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Thank you Sir. Great post, great effort. I really appreciate that. I am glad that I am communicating with a man of your caliber.

 

Thank you for your kind words.

 

 

The late Wang Peisheng studied Confucian qigong. It is mentioned on the US website of one of his students ( http://www.ycgf.org/ ). Possibly anyone interested might be able to get some more information from them.

 

Grand Master Wang Peisheng studied Buddhist Qigong with Liaoyi and Miaochan when he was thirteen. Then he studied Taoist Qigong with Shen Xinchuan and Wu Jinyong, and Confucianist Qigong with Jin Hu and Xu Zhenkuan. All these studies and practices allowed him not only to understand Qigong but also philosophy. Grand Master Wang and some famous masters, like Wang Daoyi, Wang Wanfang, Sun Xikun, etc, were good friends and also did a lot of research of Qigong practice together.

 

Thank you mjjbecker, an interesting lead.

 

I have more that I intend to post in this thread to take advantage of the opportunity to present aspects of Confucian teaching which are part of the metaphysics and cosmology of Confucian qigong. I have started another thread on a subject dear to my heart, in the Hermetic and Occult Discussion Forum, called 'Platonism and Hellenistic Spirituality'. I will be dividing my posting efforts between this thread and that one, so if there seems to be a lag between my posts here, that is the reason. Anyone who finds the idea of my other thread interesting is invited to follow both of them.

 

Right now I am working on a post of two Mencius quotes that I think people will find interesting and I will apply them to the Zhongyong

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. . . it was reading about Mencius and the Zhongyong in Tu Wei-ming's Humanity and Self-Cultivation (Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley, 1979) in late 2000 that lead me to understand the value of Confucianism. Before that, like many Westerners I had no idea of how profound a teaching it was and is. (Emphasis added, ZYD)

 

Two quotes from Mencius in particular awakened my interest in Mencius. This first one is this:

 

7A:4

萬物皆備於我矣。反身而誠、樂莫大焉。彊恕而行、求仁莫近焉。

(http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/mencius.html#div-11)

 

`All the ten thousand things are there in me. There is no greater joy for me than to find, on self-examination, that I am true to myself. Try your best to treat others as you would wish to be treated yourself, and you will find that this is the shortest way to benevolence.'

(D. C. Lau, Mencius, Penguin Books, 1970, p. 182, Emphasis mine, ZYD)

 

I have quoted the Chinese Text form Muller's site and a translation from D. C. Lau because Muller's rendering "All things are prepared within me", while a possible translation of 备 (bèi) is not as clear as one might wish. Comments from people whose Classical Chinese is good are welcome.

 

All the ten thousand things are there in me: This is about as clear a statement of the Microcosm/Macrocosm relationship as one might wish. This primciple existed in the West as 'All is in All' from antiquity to the 'Scientific Revolution'. It has recently re-emerged as the self-similarity of fractal mathematics and and as the 'holographic principle' in modern physics.

 

To find this so clearly stated in a Confucian text was very unexpected and was an important part of my revaluation of Confucianism as a profound source of fundamentally mystical doctrine.

 

I am true to myself: Another important aspect of this text is the introduction of the concept 诚 (chéng), a word usually rendered as sincere or sincerity and above as true in the translation above. The Zhongyong has to principle teachings, one on 'zhong' which I have referred to here:

 

Silent sitting is one of the primary forms of Confucian self-cultivation. The poet wants to make the point that it is not borrowed from other traditions, but is native to the the Confucian 'Dao'. The last two lines reference the teachings of the Zhongyong on Zhong, as the root of personal and cosmic existence. (Emphasis added, ZYD)

 

And the other is on chéng which is one of the most fundamental and profound concepts in Classical Confucianism and the subject a large section of the Zhongyong with which I will deal in subsequent posts.

 

To draw this to a close, I will post the other quote from Mencius, which was also a great surprise to me:

 

7B:25

浩生不害問曰、樂正子、何人也。孟子曰、善人也、信人也。何謂善、何謂信。曰、可欲之謂善。有諸己之謂信。充實之爲美。充實而光輝之謂大。大而化之之謂聖。聖而不可知之之謂神。樂正子、二之中、四之下也。

Haoshang Buhai asked, “What kind of man is Yo Zheng Zi?”

Mencius said, “He is good, and he is trustworthy.”

“What do you mean by ‘good,’ and what do you mean by ‘trustworthy’?”

“A man that people like to be with is good.

A man who keeps this goodness in himself is trustworthy.

One who fully develops his goodness is called ‘excellent.’

One whose full development of goodness shines forth is called ‘great.’

One whose greatness transforms others is called a sage.

A sage who is unfathomable is called ‘transcendent.’ (神, Shén )

Yo Zheng fits in the first two levels, but is not up to the last four.”

(http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/mencius.html#div-11, I have kept Muller's translation in this case, emphasis mine and added (神, Shén ) for clarity, ZYD)

 

To discover that Mencius viewed the end of Confucian self-cultivation as becoming a 'shen' or 'god' was quit a revelation, but this passage in Mencius is only part of the picture. How it relates to the teachings of the Zhongyong on chéng (诚) will be the subject of future posts. For now, I think I have given everyone plenty to think about.

 

Edit: added note about emphasis to first quote.

Edited by Zhongyongdaoist
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I wish dear Prof. Dr. Toshihiko Izutsu had worked on the similarity between Ibn Arabi and Confucius before his death. He made a remarkable study and compared Ibn Arabi and Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Arabi

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhuangzi

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toshihiko_Izutsu

 

I am sure he would have explored shocking similarities between Ibn Arabi and Confucius. The concepts you mentioned is similar to Sufism.

 

For interested parties,

"Sufism and Taoism: A Comparative Study of Key Philosophical Concepts" by Toshihiko Izutsu.

http://www.amazon.com/Sufism-Taoism-Comparative-Philosophical-Concepts/dp/0520052641

Edited by Isimsiz Biri
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I wish dear Prof. Dr. Toshihiko Izutsu had worked on the similarity between Ibn Arabi and Confucius before his death. He made a remarkable study and compared Ibn Arabi and Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Arabi

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhuangzi

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toshihiko_Izutsu

 

I am sure he would have explored shocking similarities between Ibn Arabi and Confucius. The concepts you mentioned is similar to Sufism.

 

For interested parties,

"Sufism and Taoism: A Comparative Study of Key Philosophical Concepts" by Toshihiko Izutsu.

http://www.amazon.com/Sufism-Taoism-Comparative-Philosophical-Concepts/dp/0520052641

 

If one limits oneself to the Confucius of the Analects, yes such similarities would be shocking because they are almost nonexistent. Such similarities may exist between Sufism and Mencius, but as the Wikipedia article you cite mentions:

 

In Sufism and Taoism: A comparative study of key philosophical concepts (1984) he compares the metaphysical and mystical thought-systems of Sufism and Taoism and discovers that, although historically unrelated, the two share features and patterns. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toshihiko_Izutsu)

 

As far as I am concerned any similarities arise because both are describing a fundamental reality which is part of human potential to experience and know, though also as far as I am concerned Ibn Arabi's knowledge of such matters comes from the Neo-Platonic content of Sufism:

 

Islamic Neoplatonism developed in a milieu already saturated with the thought of Plotinus and Aristotle. The former studied in Alexandria, and the Alexandrine philosophical syllabus included such figures as Porphyry of Tyre and Proclus. Associated with these scholars were two major channels of Islamic Neoplatonism, the so-called Theology of Aristotle and the Liber de Causis (Book of Causes). Other cities beloved of the philosophers at the time of the rise of Islam in the first century ah (seventh century ad) included Gondeshapur and Harran. (http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/rep/H003)

 

I would no more recommend Sufism as an account of Neo-Platonism than I would recommend that one learn about Plato from Philo of Alexandria. The Platonic tradition stands on its own and is not in need of help from either.

 

I will return to posting on the Confucianism of Mencius and the Zhongyong shortly.

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My aim was to make a positive contribution but I am shocked to see the result is quite opposite.

 

 

If one limits oneself to the Confucius of the Analects, yes such similarities would be shocking because they are almost nonexistent. Such similarities may exist between Sufism and Mencius, but as the Wikipedia article you cite mentions:

 

I should have referred to Mencius, instead of Confucius such that the two concepts you previously mentioned about Mencius ("All the ten thousand things are in me" and "I am true to myself") can be found in Sufism with almost the same wording. I am sorry.

 

However, I do not understand your point that you stated there is almost nothing similar in Confucius Analects and Ibn Arabi. Emphasize of moral values, respect to parents and elderly can be found in Islamic tradition and also Ibn Arabi. Especially, "Meccan Revelations" are full of such explanations.

 

 

As far as I am concerned any similarities arise because both are describing a fundamental reality which is part of human potential to experience and know,...

 

That is exactly what I tried to explain. I agree 100%

 

 

 

though also as far as I am concerned Ibn Arabi's knowledge of such matters comes from the Neo-Platonic content of Sufism:

 

Sufism is affected by Neo-Platonism; that is for sure. But if you say that, Ibn Arabi's knowledge about such matters comes from Neo-Platonic content of Sufism, it means you have very limited and misleading information about Ibn Arabi. Ibn Arabi's knowledge of such matters comes from divine reality. If you refer to preface of "Ringstones of Wisdom" you may easily see that.

 

 

 

I would no more recommend Sufism as an account of Neo-Platonism than I would recommend that one learn about Plato from Philo of Alexandria. The Platonic tradition stands on its own and is not in need of help from either.

 

There are many sufis within Sufism. There is Rumi. There is Haji Bektash Veli. There is Abdul-Qadir Gilani. There is Ibn Arabi. There is Imam Rabbani (Ahmad Sirhindi). There is Ibn Sina (Avicenna). There is Ibn Rusd (Averroes). There is Al Ghazali. There are many Sufis. Among them, Avicenna (Ibn Sina), Al-Ghazali, Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, and Al-Himsi were the main ones that shaped Islamic Neo Platonism. Apparently, Ibn Arabi was not one of the Sufis that shaped Islamic Neo Platonism. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoplatonism#Islamic_Neoplatonism)

 

If you say that Sufism consists of Neo-Platonism but nothing else, you make a great mistake. Sufism stands alone as a tradition and does need Neo-Platonism to stay like that. You are right, one should not learn about Plato from Sufism because there are skyscrapers added by Sufism on top of Platonic tradition.

 

Last but not least, I strongly recommend to read "Sufism and Taoism: A Comparative Study of Key Philosophical Concepts". You will admire Ibn Arabi's genius.

 

 

I will return to posting on the Confucianism of Mencius and the Zhongyong shortly.

 

Looking forward to it, as it is not my purpose to derail this thread.

Edited by Isimsiz Biri

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I've been waiting for Zhongyongtaoist and Isimsiz Biri to come back to this thread but it looks like it's dead for now. So I'm going to add in a few things over the next few months from my own investigations into Chinese classics. Particularly Confucianism since that's what I've been studying off and on for the past year - but also intend to add things about Mozi, Guanzi and a few other things (Lushi Chunqiu - the spring and fall annals for example).

 

 

In the meantime I thought I'd share the following article which was published this month on The Atlantic Monthly's website.

 

 

Hope everyone enjoys it.

 

 

 

p.s. I actually appreciated the addition of Sufism. If only for providing yet another culture's attempts to highlight how-to on 'wordless/concept-less/notion-less living' as I call it.

 

 

*******************

 

 

Why Are Hundreds of Harvard Students Studying Ancient Chinese Philosophy?

The professor who teaches Classical Chinese Ethical and Political Theory claims, "This course will change your life."
Grossloh_ChinesePhilosophy_Post.jpg

Picture a world where human relationships are challenging, narcissism and self-centeredness are on the rise, and there is disagreement on the best way for people to live harmoniously together.

It sounds like 21st-century America. But the society that Michael Puett, a tall, 48-year-old bespectacled professor of Chinese history at Harvard University, is describing to more than 700 rapt undergraduates is China, 2,500 years ago.

 

Puett's course Classical Chinese Ethical and Political Theory has become the third most popular course at the university. The only classes with higher enrollment are Intro to Economics and Intro to Computer Science. The second time Puett offered it, in 2007, so many students crowded into the assigned room that they were sitting on the stairs and stage and spilling out into the hallway. Harvard moved the class to Sanders Theater, the biggest venue on campus.

Why are so many undergraduates spending a semester poring over abstruse Chinese philosophy by scholars who lived thousands of years ago? For one thing, the class fulfills one of Harvard's more challenging core requirements, Ethical Reasoning. It's clear, though, that students are also lured in by Puett's bold promise: “This course will change your life.”

 

His students tell me it is true: that Puett uses Chinese philosophy as a way to give undergraduates concrete, counter-intuitive, and even revolutionary ideas, which teach them how to live a better life. Elizabeth Malkin, a student in the course last year, says, “The class absolutely changed my perspective of myself, my peers, and of the way I view the world.” Puett puts a fresh spin on the questions that Chinese scholars grappled with centuries ago. He requires his students to closely read original texts (in translation) such as Confucius’s Analects, the Mencius, and the Daodejing and then actively put the teachings into practice in their daily lives. His lectures use Chinese thought in the context of contemporary American life to help 18- and 19-year-olds who are struggling to find their place in the world figure out how to be good human beings; how to create a good society; how to have a flourishing life.

 

 

Puett began offering his course to introduce his students not just to a completely different cultural worldview but also to a different set of tools. He told me he is seeing more students who are “feeling pushed onto a very specific path towards very concrete career goals” than he did when he began teaching nearly 20 years ago. A recent report shows a steep decline over the last decade in the number of Harvard students who are choosing to major in the humanities, a trend roughly seen across the nation’s liberal arts schools. Finance remains the most popular career for Harvard graduates. Puett sees students who orient all their courses and even their extracurricular activities towards practical, predetermined career goals and plans.

 

 

Puett tells his students that being calculating and rationally deciding on plans is precisely the wrong way to make any sort of important life decision. The Chinese philosophers they are reading would say that this strategy makes it harder to remain open to other possibilities that don’t fit into that plan. Students who do this “are not paying enough attention to the daily things that actually invigorate and inspire them, out of which could come a really fulfilling, exciting life,” he explains. If what excites a student is not the same as what he has decided is best for him, he becomes trapped on a misguided path, slated to begin an unfulfilling career. Puett aims to open his students’ eyes to a different way to approach everything from relationships to career decisions. He teaches them that:

 

The smallest actions have the most profound ramifications. Confucius, Mencius, and other Chinese philosophers taught that the most mundane actions can have a ripple effect, and Puett urges his students to become more self-aware, to notice how even the most quotidian acts—holding open the door for someone, smiling at the grocery clerk—change the course of the day by affecting how we feel.

 

 

That rush of good feeling that comes after a daily run, the inspiring conversation with a good friend, or the momentary flash of anger that arises when someone cuts in front of us in line—what could they have to do with big life matters? Everything, actually. From a Chinese philosophical point of view, these small daily experiences provide us endless opportunities to understand ourselves. When we notice and understand what makes us tick, react, feel joyful or angry, we develop a better sense of who we are that helps us when approaching new situations. Mencius, a late Confucian thinker (4th century B.C.E.), taught that if you cultivate your better nature in these small ways, you can become an extraordinary person with an incredible influence, altering your own life as well as that of those around you, until finally “you can turn the whole world in the palm of your hand.”

 

 

Decisions are made from the heart. Americans tend to believe that humans are rational creatures who make decisions logically, using our brains. But in Chinese, the word for “mind” and “heart” are the same. Puett teaches that the heart and the mind are inextricably linked, and that one does not exist without the other. Whenever we make decisions, from the prosaic to the profound (what to make for dinner; which courses to take next semester; what career path to follow; whom to marry), we will make better ones when we intuit how to integrate heart and mind and let our rational and emotional sides blend into one. Zhuangzi, a Daoist philosopher, taught that we should train ourselves to become “spontaneous” through daily living, rather than closing ourselves off through what we think of as rational decision-making. In the same way that one deliberately practices the piano in order to eventually play it effortlessly, through our everyday activities we train ourselves to become more open to experiences and phenomena so that eventually the right responses and decisions come spontaneously, without angst, from the heart-mind.

 

 

Recent research into neuroscience is confirming that the Chinese philosophers are correct: Brain scans reveal that our unconscious awareness of emotions and phenomena around us are actually what drive the decisions we believe we are making with such logical rationality. According to Marianne LaFrance, a psychology professor at Yale, if we see a happy face for just a fraction of a second (4 milliseconds to be exact), that’s long enough to elicit a mini emotional high. In one study viewers who were flashed a smile—even though it was shown too quickly for them to even realize they had seen it—perceived the things around them more positively.

 

 

If the body leads, the mind will follow. Behaving kindly (even when you are not feeling kindly), or smiling at someone (even if you aren’t feeling particularly friendly at the moment) can cause actual differences in how you end up feeling and behaving, even ultimately changing the outcome of a situation.

 

 

While all this might sound like hooey-wooey self-help, much of what Puett teaches is previously accepted cultural wisdom that has been lost in the modern age. Aristotle said, “We are what we repeatedly do,” a view shared by thinkers such as Confucius, who taught that the importance of rituals lies in how they inculcate a certain sensibility in a person. In research published in Psychological Science, social psychologist Amy Cuddy and her colleagues found that when we take a power stance (stand with our legs apart, arms thrust out, taking up space), the pose does not only cause other people to view us as more confident and powerful; it actually causes a hormonal surge that makes us become more confident.

 

 

At the end of each class, Puett challenges his students to put the Chinese philosophy they have been learning into tangible practice in their everyday lives. “The Chinese philosophers we read taught that the way to really change lives for the better is from a very mundane level, changing the way people experience and respond to the world, so what I try to do is to hit them at that level. I’m not trying to give my students really big advice about what to do with their lives. I just want to give them a sense of what they can do daily to transform how they live.” Their assignments are small ones: to first observe how they feel when they smile at a stranger, hold open a door for someone, engage in a hobby. He asks them to take note of what happens next: how every action, gesture, or word dramatically affects how others respond to them. Then Puett asks them to pursue more of the activities that they notice arouse positive, excited feelings. In their papers and discussion sections students discuss what it means to live life according to the teachings of these philosophers.

 

 

Once they’ve understood themselves better and discovered what they love to do they can then work to become adept at those activities through ample practice and self-cultivation. Self-cultivation is related to another classical Chinese concept: that effort is what counts the most, more than talent or aptitude. We aren’t limited to our innate talents; we all have enormous potential to expand our abilities if we cultivate them. You don’t have to be stuck doing what you happen to be good at; merely pay attention to what you love and proceed from there. Chinese philosophers taught that paying attention to small clues “can literally change everything that we can become as human beings,” says Puett.

 

To be interconnected, focus on mundane, everyday practices, and understand that great things begin with the very smallest of acts are radical ideas for young people living in a society that pressures them to think big and achieve individual excellence. This might be one reason why, according to the Chronicle for Higher Education, interest in Chinese philosophy is taking off around the nation—not just at Harvard. And it’s a message that’s especially resonating with those yearning for an alternative to the fast track they have been on all their lives.

 

 

One of Puett’s former students, Adam Mitchell, was a math and science whiz who went to Harvard intending to major in economics. At Harvard specifically and in society in general, he told me, “we’re expected to think of our future in this rational way: to add up the pros and cons and then make a decision. That leads you down the road of ‘Stick with what you’re good at’”—a road with little risk but little reward. But after his introduction to Chinese philosophy during his sophomore year, he realized this wasn’t the only way to think about the future. Instead, he tried courses he was drawn to but wasn’t naturally adroit at because he had learned how much value lies in working hard to become better at what you love. He became more aware of the way he was affected by those around him, and how they were affected by his own actions in turn. Mitchell threw himself into foreign language learning, feels his relationships have deepened, and is today working towards a master’s degree in regional studies. He told me, “I can happily say that Professor Puett lived up to his promise, that the course did in fact change my life.”

 

 

**********

 

 

p.s. wanted to add a cheaper alternative to Wei Tu Ming's Humanity and Self Cultivation is a book from Robert E. Canright - Achieve Lasting Happiness. Canright thanks Tu Ming in the Forward for introducing him to the wisdom of Confucius and why he had such a huge influence of Chinese culture for hundreds of years. There's also this fascinating ditty I hope to check out sometime

 

Was Pythagoras Chinese? An Examination of the Right Triangle Theory in Ancient China

Edited by JustARandomPanda

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I missed this thread before. Thanks to everyone who contributed, some nice stuff here. Some of the aspects of Chinese society that are well outlined in the Confucian tradition are things I have struggled with. As any non-Chinese who has spent any time living in China will tell you it becomes a love-hate relationship. The thing about 面 face was sometimes hard to take.

 

Still, as time has passed and I have spent more time with the classics my appreciation of what the Confucians were getting at has made it easier for me. Seeing some of the strictness of the social rules as a means to live with each other in such density now seems more adaptive and less arbitrary to me. As well, seeing the central role of compassion in the tradition has made me feel much beter disposed towards the teachings. My Daoist inclinations would still make me fart at Confucius' dinner party, spill fod on my shirt and tease his stoicism, but I now also honour his deep heart.

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I've been waiting for Zhongyongtaoist and Isimsiz Biri to come back to this thread but it looks like it's dead for now.

 

The last post before your post belongs to me, so I also waited for Zhongyongdaoist.

 

 

I would like to refer to a point that seems to be related to your very interesting post.

 

Koichi Tohei Sensei, the direct disciple of Morihei Ueshiba, mentioned a very important point. In his four basic principles for mind and body unification, the first basic principle is to "Keep One Point: calm and focus the mind at the one point in the lower abdomen. To keep One Point: Centre on the point in the lower abdomen where you cannot put tension. Let your body weight fall on your One Point, not your legs or feet. Your breathing is calm and subtle. You can accept whatever happens without losing your composure.Therefore you can do your best at any time. (One Point is Tanden Point or Dan Tian)

For the rest of basic principles and their sub principles, refer to:

http://www.northsideaikido.com/en/ki-principles

 

In the article you mentioned, it is subtly hinted but in my opinion Koichi Tohei mentioned it explicitly.

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Thank you. Very inspiring post. You have mentioned well known examples from a very different angle. It would be very interesting to learn Confucian qigong and explore the differences with Daoist schools.

 

 

While many people think that they can refine qi better in deep cave or on high mountain, Confucian qigong practitioners definitely will tell you that it is among the crowd that our qi is best polished and upgraded.

 

A Chinses saying tells us the truth from another perspective : " While petty hermits hide in the wilderness , the real hermit hides in the marketplace " ( ' 小隠隠于野, 大隠隠于市')

Edited by exorcist_1699
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While many people think that they can refine their qi better in deep cave or on high mountain, Confucian qigong practitioners definitely will tell you that it is among the crowd that our qi is best refined and upgraded.

 

A Chinses saying tells us the truth from another perspective : " While petty hermits hide in the wilderness , the real hermit hides among the crowd " ( ' 小隠隠于野, 大隠隠于市')

 

I have found this whole thread very interesting...Cultivating our selves, our minds and hearts instead of focusing on just the body.

 

Does this relate to the 5 spirits in chinese medicine?

 

The part that seems most unclear to me is how to cultivate and/or be Justice and the Way. Other texts mention Rightousness or Proper Action.

 

How would you even go about cultivating these things?

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I am glad that you took my advice:

 

. . . refer you to my posts under:

Confucian Qi gong

I took my Tao Bums name, Zhongyongdaoist from the original Chinese of "The Doctrine of the Mean", Zhongyong.


and wish I had more time now to address these issues:


I have found this whole thread very interesting...Cultivating our selves, our minds and hearts instead of focusing on just the body.

Does this relate to the 5 spirits in chinese medicine?

The part that seems most unclear to me is how to cultivate and/or be Justice and the Way. Other texts mention Rightousness or Proper Action.

How would you even go about cultivating these things?


Time constraints were one of the reasons I had to stop posting before and are part of the reason I cannot post here in detail now, but I will refer you to:

Daxue

Zhongyong

These are the two of Zhuxi's Four Books that are most understandable to modern readers. The site where these versions are located is A. Charles Muller's excellent site:

Resources for East Asian Language and Thought

 

If I find time I will post more, thanks to exorcist_1699, both for starting this thread and for bringing it back to the surface again today.

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I am glad that you took my advice:

 

 

and wish I had more time now to address these issues:

 

 

Time constraints were one of the reasons I had to stop posting before and are part of the reason I cannot post here in detail now, but I will refer you to:

 

Daxue

 

Zhongyong

 

These are the two of Zhuxi's Four Books that are most understandable to modern readers. The site where these versions are located is A. Charles Muller's excellent site:

 

Resources for East Asian Language and Thought

 

If I find time I will post more, thanks to exorcist_1699, both for starting this thread and for bringing it back to the surface again today.

 

Thanks, Zhongyongdaoist!

 

I will read those two books and see what I am ready to understand.

 

I also look forward to whatever else you decide to post.

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Does this relate to the 5 spirits in chinese medicine?

 

The part that seems most unclear to me is how to cultivate and/or be Justice and the Way. Other texts mention Rightousness or Proper Action.

 

How would you even go about cultivating these things?

 

Yes, it can be related to the Chinese medicine .

 

For example , to do good things is not so simple as people think , in fact, it needs a combination of many of our good characters: First we have to identify what is right and what is wrong, which needs intelligence ; then we need the courage to put it into action, and to do it in a persistent way... all these are related to different qi we get in our different organs ( the model is related but a little different from TCM' theory ) :

 

 

For example, immense Heart qi is the foundation for kindness('仁') which makes us compassionate towards all people , even animals; a full and strong Kidney qi enables us intelligent ('智') enough to identify what is evil , what is noble; yet without a strong and healthy liver qi , we can't get the resolute and courage (' 勇' ) to take those moral actions...etc.

Edited by exorcist_1699
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I have found this whole thread very interesting...Cultivating our selves, our minds and hearts instead of focusing on just the body.

 

Does this relate to the 5 spirits in chinese medicine?

 

The part that seems most unclear to me is how to cultivate and/or be Justice and the Way. Other texts mention Rightousness or Proper Action.

 

How would you even go about cultivating these things?

 

Exorcist_1699 has given a good starting point for the rooting of the virtues in the body and the relation of Confucian cultivation to TCM.

 

I remembered that I had a long post about basic Confucian principles in conflict resolution which may be a useful starting point in applying these ideas to social interactions. The context is advice to use the Yi Jing in conflict resolution, thus the discussion of Yi Jing in the post:

 

. . . Most of what passes for 'Daoism' is full of Confucian principles, this is because the Chinese attitude has so internalized Confucianism that it becomes an almost unnoticed part of the whole context of the Chinese worldview. Even Daoist Master Ni gives translations of two Confucian Classics the Da Xue and the Zhong Yong (by the way, now you know the source of my Tao Bums name, some of you may have noticed it already) in his book on the Yi Jing (see below for reference), and uses such Confucian terms as sincerity and righteousness.

 

. . .

 

I find Daoism is not very helpful in everyday life, especially if you are coming from it solely from the perspective of Laozi and Zhuangzi. Great for Sages, great for Hermits, lousy for ordinary people, in everyday situations. The reasons for this are rather complex, but even Pietro's otherwise excellent advice, begs the question of which translation and which commentary tradition to use. More importantly a lot of the commentary tradition is Confucian in origin, and in my experience it is Confucianism that has the best approach to daily life, both for ordinary people and also for people on the path to Sagehood.

 

As an example of what I mean, the word sincerity which appears as part of the 'Judgment' on Hexagram 6 in many English translations of the Yi Jing, is not part of the original text (see http://chinese.dsturgeon.net/text.pl?node=25100&if=en for the Chinese of the text), but as Legge makes clear, arises from the Confucian commentary tradition when he says, “But the undivided line in the center of Khan is emblematic of sincerity...” (See Legge, I Ching Book of Changes, University Books, 1972, p. 70, notes on the Sung Hexagram). Sincerity is a Confucian technical term (see my Commentary on the Sincerity Mandala, http://innersagetao.net/page14.html, for some notion of the Confucian meaning of Sincerity)

 

As example of translations that do not use sincerity there are, Master Ni, in his translation (The Book of Changes and The Unchanging Truth, The Shrine of the Eternal Breath of Tao, 1983), and Greg Whincup (Rediscovering the I Ching, Doubleday, 1986), neither author mentions sincerity in his translation of the 'Judgment', though Master Ni mentions sincerity (as well as being righteous) in his commentary on the judgment. Whincup does not mention sincerity at all.

 

Confucianism is one of the most misunderstood Philosophies around, far from being closed form of 'secular' humanism, it is more of an open ended approach, which, to use a term that I first coined to describe Platonism, is a 'mystical' humanism, in which Sagehood is the goal. To quote Tu Wei-wing quoting Mencius:

 

“(Mencius says)’... the value of humanity depends on its being brought to maturity’ (6A.19). In fact, on one occasion at least, Mencius even attempts to characterize a few perfected stages in poetic terms:

 

He who commands our liking is called good.

He who is sincere with himself is called true.

He who is sufficient and real is called beautiful.

He whose sufficiency and reality shine forth is called great.

He whose greatness transform itself is called sagely.

He whose sageliness is beyond our comprehension is called spiritual.

 

Undoubtably, from the good to the spiritual there are numerous degrees of refinement. Moral self-development so perceived is tantamount to an unceasing process of humanization.” (Humanity and Self-Cultivation, p. 68)

 

(I quote the above in my reading list two, 'Core Books for an Ethics of Self-Realization', in the recommended reading section of my website, http://innersagetao.net/recommendedreading.html, this list can give one a better example of what I mean and places it in the context of the East/West synthesis which I have been working toward most of my life.)

 

A Confucian approach to conflict resolution would be a combination of self-examination and empathy which would start with the two formulations of the Golden Rule, which are at the core of Confucian action, first in its negative form as Confucius states it 'do not do to others, what you do not like done to you', and then in its positive form as stated by Mencius, 'Treat others as you would be treated'. These both imply an important principle, which is; if you don't like being treated in a certain fashion then why do you think another person is going to like to be treated that way, and why do you think treatment that you would resent will help resolve issues?

 

Asking how you would like to be treated is the first step in deciding how to treat others, but there is another important point and that is empathy. You must also ask yourself how you would want to be treated and how you would not want to be treated, if the positions were exactly reversed and you were in the position of the other. This is where self-knowledge is the beginning of empathy, for in many cases you will find the answer within yourself by imagining yourself in the others position.

 

Finally the question of propriety (Li) comes into play, and this asks the question, are my proposed actions 'cosmogenic', in other words do they generate harmony and decrease discord. This is the fundamental rule of propriety, do my proposed actions increase the sum of harmony within this situation and reduce the amount of discord, and this is why propriety is rooted in Wisdom. This is the traditional point of good manners and a gracious demeanor, they are intended to be generators of Harmony, and if they are not, then ones needs to examine ones Sincerity.

 

The above is a short introduction to Confucian conflict resolution principles, I hope that it is helpful. Generally, it is much more useful than Daoism, since most of us do not have a Sage's virtue (de) in order to bring spontaneous harmony to those around us through non-action, instead most of us need to exercise a little thoughtful action, and a little thoughtful action can go a long way.

 

I hope this is helpful.

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Thank you for this wonderful thread, Exorcist and ZYD.

 

Just as a simple overview statement of Te, regardless of which discipline we're adhering to:

 

"Character is what we do when nobody is looking".

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Thank you for this wonderful thread, Exorcist and ZYD.

 

Just as a simple overview statement of Te, regardless of which discipline we're adhering to:

 

"Character is what we do when nobody is looking".

 

You're welcome manitou and thank you for your acknowledgement, I wish that I had more time to devote to this subject right now, but I don't.

 

To return for a moment to this:

 

Yes, it can be related to the Chinese medicine .

 

For example , to do good things is not so simple as people think , in fact, it needs a combination of many of our good characters: First we have to identify what is right and what is wrong, which needs intelligence ; then we need the courage to put it into action, and to do it in a persistent way... all these are related to different qi we get in our different organs ( the model is related but a little different from TCM' theory ) :

 

 

For example, immense Heart qi is the foundation for kindness('仁') which makes us compassionate towards all people , even animals; a full and strong Kidney qi enables us intelligent ('智') enough to identify what is evil , what is noble; yet without a strong and healthy liver qi , we can't get the resolute and courage (' 勇' ) to take those moral actions...etc.

 

The Confucian use of these ideas is quit old, Mark Csikszentmihalyi has written an excellent study of its roots in late Waring State, Qin and early Han, called Material Virtue; Ethics and the Body in Early China (Brill, 2004):

 

This book reconstructs a neglected episode in the development of Confucianism, one that considerably influenced later Chinese religious thought.

 

Material Virtue examines a set of four through first century B.C.E. Chinese texts that argue virtue has a physical correlate in the body. Based on both transmitted (e.g., the Mengzi or Mencius) and recently excavated (e.g., the Wuxing or Five Kinds of Action) texts, Material Virtue describes how the argument addresses challenges to early Chinese religious ethics in part by relying on emerging notions such as the balance of qi (pneumas) also found in natural philosophy. Brill Site's summary of Material Virtue

 

Regrettably out of the reach of most people, but those interested might try inter-library loan.

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Zhongyongdaoist, do you know if any of the Guodian texts shed light on these matters as well? I feel like the little I've read of them suggests that they might be a helpful place to look for this TCM, Daoism, Confucianism intersection. Then again, I think they're hard to find too (probably not as hard as Csikszentmihalyi but still...).

 

Also, don't some people consider the Nie Yeh at least partially "Confucian"? I wonder if that text could also be a helpful place to look for more on this.

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Zhongyongdaoist, do you know if any of the Guodian texts shed light on these matters as well? I feel like the little I've read of them suggests that they might be a helpful place to look for this TCM, Daoism, Confucianism intersection. Then again, I think they're hard to find too (probably not as hard as Csikszentmihalyi but still...).

 

Also, don't some people consider the Nie Yeh at least partially "Confucian"?/b] I wonder if that text could also be a helpful place to look for more on this.

 

do you know if any of the Guodian texts shed light on these matters as well? The Wikipedia Article on the Wuxing texts:

 

Wu xing (Chinese: 五行; pinyin: Wǔxíng) is a Warring States period text ascribed to Zisi, known mainly due to the Mawangdui (1973, sealed 168 BCE) and Guodian (1993, sealed about 300 BCE) discoveries.

Relationship between the two versions of the text remains debated. Unlike the Guodian version, written on bamboo strips, the Mawangdui "Wu xing" is written on silk and contains both the main text (jing) identical to that of the Guodian and the explanation (shuo).[2]

 

The text is related to the "Zhongyong" and "Daxue" (presently chapters in the Classic of Rites). However, in Mawangdui it was discovered written in the same scroll with the Laozi. (Emphasis mine, ZYD, Wikipedia Wuxing texts)

 

Apendices Two and Three of Csikszentmihalyi's book are translations and Commentaries on the Goudian and Mawangdui Wǔxíng respectively.

 

Here is the abstract of the other English reference cited in Wikipedia notes:

 

In 1973 a cache of silk manuscripts was discovered in Mawangdui tomb number three in Hunan province. This was the first extensive collection of silk manuscripts unearthed from such an early period: 168 BCE, during the Han dynasty (202 BCE – 202 CE). Guodian village in the province of Hubei was the site of another exciting discovery in October of 1993. Here archaeologists uncovered a tomb they labelled M1 from 300 BCE in the pre-Qin state of Chu that contained texts written on 804 bamboo strips. These two tombs are separated by one of the most significant period-defining events in ancient history, Qin Shihuang's unification of China. Excavated manuscripts now bridge this historic divide. Some are early editions of major works known from the received tradition. Others were previously unknown having been lost for over two millennia. Of the received texts, the Daodejing has been translated into English based on each of the editions found in Mawangdui and Guodian. The only other text that appears in both of these tombs is “The Five Aspects of Conduct”, which will be made widely available to an English speaking audience for the first time at the end of this article. (Emphasis mine, ZYD, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society at Cambridge Journal's Online)

 

don't some people consider the Nie Yeh at least partially "Confucian"? I do for one:

 

On the other hand the Mencian branch of Confucianism is quite mystical. In my own research there is a strong link between Mencius and the Neiye, and this also seems to be connected with aspects of early Daoism. It is the authority of Mencius that allows the Song Confucians to assimilate Daoism and Buddhism into that great body of thought usually referred to as Neo-Confucianism and raises the question of whether Confucianism ever departed from the Dao, or whether its profound name was simply kidnapped by Xunzi, who from this perspective should be viewed as the founding robber baron of a long line of 'thieves of virtue'.

 

A nice piece of polemical writing, but my position is the result of reading Mencius, Waley and Graham as I note on my site:

 

Original Tao: Inward Training and the Foundations of Taoist Mysticism by Harold D. Roth

 

This text is the source of two concepts fundamental to Inner Sage Tao, one is ‘numinous mind’(Shen) and the other is the Microcosm/Macrocosm connection (This text or something like it may be the source of the Mencius microcosm/macrocosm doctrine). Roth’s translation is lucid and readable and his commentaries and notes are useful as what might be called a ‘horizontal’ commentary on the text, but his desire to present the text as more homogenous than it actually is causes him to avoid what I came to call a ‘vertical’ analysis which focuses on the different vocabularies of the chapters and the implications for the origin of the text. Roth seems to want to represent this text as purely a proto-Taoist work, but this can only be done at the expense of ignoring many similarities to the Mencius, references which are not obscure and were noted, for example, by Waley in the introduction of his translation of the Tao te Ching, The Way and it’s Power. After much thought I had to agree with A. C. Graham who considers the text to predate a split between the Confucian and Taoist schools(See Disputers of the Tao, below, page 100).

 

Disputers of the Tao by A. C. Graham

 

This is one of the best books on Chinese Philosophy that I have ever read. In terms of its combination of readability, evenhanded and judicious use of sources and of deep insight it ranks with say, W. K. C. Guthrie’s History of Greek Philosophy, as a monument to one man’s learning and insight. Its subtitle ‘Philosophical Argument in Ancient China” is enough to turn anyone off with a threatening sounding snooze factor, but don’t let this put you off it is actually a very stimulating work about the history and development of early Chinese Philosophy from the Middle Warring States period to the Middle Han, roughly 500 BCE to 100 BCE, which also has a great deal to offer any thinking person with some interest in ‘the meaning of life’ and other curious and recondite matters. Inner Sage Tao, Recommended Reading, Reading list One

 

Reading List Two is also worth a read if you want to know a little about the background of my own ethical theories.

 

In my "Commentary on the Ming Te Mandala", which is my Tao Bums avatar, I give specific references for Waley:

 

The concept of shen is represented by the top point of the triangle. It enters Inner Sage Tao from a short treatise, Nei Yeh (inner cultivation) from the Küan-tzu (Guanzi) a larger collection of texts from the Warring States Period, with some perhaps from the early Han Dynasty. This short work has been translated as a separate work by Roth, and also as part of a collection of translations from the the Küan-tzu and a complete translation by Alan Rickett. The work is echoed in several important places in the Mencius and a good case can be made that it was strongly influential in the Mencian branch of Confucianism. Roth is at great pains to minimize the Confucian aspects of the text, recognizing only one of the echoes in the Mencius and playing it down to a passing semblance. Waley is more generous to Mencius and in the Introduction to his translation of the Tao Te Ching (The Way and its Power, pgs. 33-34, 48-50, 55, 57-58) points out a large number of echoes that make the potential relation between the Nei Yeh and Confucianism hard to ignore. Graham (Graham 1991, p. 100) considers that Nei Yeh originates at a time before there was a serious split between Confucianism and Taoism. (Emphasis added, ZYD, Commentary on the Ming Te or Inner Sage Mandala)

 

Most of these quoted works of mine are an odd mixture of Pinyin and Old School transliteration. They are definitely in need of some revision.

 

I hope this is helpful. I was rather rushed in preparing this, my apologies for any errors and is also the reason for quoting from my own site, I don't have time to rewrite all of this for a post here.

 

 

 

Edit: Corrected "Csikszentmihalyi's book" above.

Edited by Zhongyongdaoist
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