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the Master said: "In governing a thousand-chariot state1, be reverent to your duties and truthful; economize expenditure and love men; employ the people at proper times."2


1. In ancient times, because battles were conducted on chariots, the military power of a state was measured by the number of chariots it possessed. A thousand-chariot state during Master Kong's time was a fairly small one. Note that each chariot was drawn by a team of four horses.


2. i.e during slack seasons in farming.



The Master said; "Younger brothers and sons should be filial to their parents at home, obedient to their elder brothers abroad1, discreet and truthful, love all the multitude and keep close to humane men. If, after practicing these, they have energy to spare, they should employ it to acquire culture.2


1. "Abroad" here implies 'at school'.

2. The Six Arts, namely, the rituals, music, archery, charioteering, language and arithmetic.

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