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  1. I am proposing to discuss here the fundamental principle of reality and the logic (non-duality, oneness) of Tao philsophy. I feel this is the most fundamental approach to have a consistent understanding. My book (The Logic of Tao Philosophy) has been downloaded by 92 people, yesterday. I will continue to modify the book ( to improve on the writing, editing, etc.). The principle of Lao-tzu is general and can be applied to many related areas. Any suggestion is welcome on setting this as a special topic? (From the Book) [The Principle of Oneness] We may now summarize our discussion as a Principle. In Tao philosophy, Oneness or Nonduality is the base of all realities, so we may summarize the principle of Tao as The Principle of Oneness 恆一原則: When we represent one reality Heng Tao by two true manifestations, Heng Wu and Heng Yu, the two manifestations will have opposite characteristics, but they are equivalent representations of the same reality. Both manifestations appear at the same time. As a reality, each of the two true manifestations will cover the same whole domain of the reality. To describe the two true manifestations, we define two opposite objects, Wu and Yu, to represent the opposite parts of the whole domain. These objects belong to separate sub-domains. However, these objects participate in the formation of actual manifestations. Therefore, each manifestation, as a whole, will comprise simultaneously of both parts, with a strict principle to reconstruct its wholeness. When we express the true manifestations in terms of the objects, the objects will be vague and the manifestations will appear with self-contradictory and indeterminate objects. Such ambiguity and vagueness is inherently the profound and mysterious nature of reality in the phenomenal world. According to this Principle of Oneness, any “division” of a reality will result in “multiple” equivalent manifestations of the same reality. A reality is thus indivisible. Each “part” will still reflect the “whole.” The Oneness or Nonduality of Tao appears as a pair of Dualistic Realities in the world. The Principle of Oneness is a general law of Oneness or Nonduality. The logical participation of the parts in the whole is an ancient philosophical problem. Our systematic model may also be applied to address this common philosophical problem.