themiddleway

Elongated skulls of Paracas Peru

Recommended Posts

Any thoughts on this? Hundreds of elongated skulls have been found in this area of Peru. Supposedly, preliminary testing has revealed:

It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans.

  • Like 3

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Any thoughts on this? Hundreds of elongated skulls have been found in this area of Peru. Supposedly, preliminary testing has revealed:

It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans.

We have already had a thread on this. Some cultures wrap feet, heads of babies and small children as an aesthetic. The so called DNA testing is a fraud.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

As for the creditionals of Brien's geneticist I have know idea, this testing has only just received funding to go ahead, partly by Brian.Foerster and partly by interested third parties. So to reiterate the testing has only just began, I don't know what studies you are referring to Ralis....?

I know the sequencing is not finished yet. The geneticist has stated that he would be willing to go public and publish his findings in a peer reviewed journal if the sequencing shows an evolutionary anomaly. So we will have to wait and see.

Just a general comment about genes and evolution, most people are unaware of recent developments in molecular biology; biologists have moved from a mechanistic view to an informatic understanding of cellular processes. The view of the genome as a read only memory system has been replaced by read & write system subject to non random change. Systems engineering is a better metaphor for the evolutionary process rather than the random walk through currently taught. Bullheaded selectionists like Richard.Dawkins are going to find their position increasingly untenable as we reveal more about the informatic basis of the genome.

Brien.Foerster has studied head binding, if you actually watch the video he compares a normal human skull, a human skull that has been bound and the elengated skull. Head binding can change the shape but not the mass, other curiosities are one plate as opposed to our two, less molars and larger eye sockets.

The skulls were found in region of Peru that have many remarkable megalithic constructions such as the Cusco wall. If you actually watch the video you can see the evidence of precise polygonal construction with water tight seams! Very hard to do with stone hammers and copper chisels that the Inca were using. So it's not unreasonable to propose that an advanced culture existed in this area and pre dated the Inca by maybe a thousand or more years.

Edited by themiddleway

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The stone building styles outlined in the video are also repeated in Ancient Egypt; early, very precise stonework done with stone tools, skill and patience (virtually incomprehensible to modern people) from an earlier age far surpasses later stonework when virtually all metal tools were used. In many cases we understand the technique used but not the .... 'viability' of the process.

egyptian-inca-precision-stonework.jpg

Ancient (stone) and more modern (metal tool carving) block fitting processes are very different.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

As for the creditionals of Brien's geneticist I have know idea, this testing has only just received funding to go ahead, partly by Brian.Foerster and partly by interested third parties. So to reiterate the testing has only just began, I don't know what studies you are referring to Ralis....?

I know the sequencing is not finished yet. The geneticist has stated that he would be willing to go public and publish his findings in a peer reviewed journal if the sequencing shows an evolutionary anomaly. So we will have to wait and see.

Just a general comment about genes and evolution, most people are unaware of recent developments in molecular biology; biologists have moved from a mechanistic view to an informatic understanding of cellular processes. The view of the genome as a read only memory system has been replaced by read & write system subject to non random change. Systems engineering is a better metaphor for the evolutionary process rather than the random walk through currently taught. Bullheaded selectionists like Richard.Dawkins are going to find their position increasingly untenable as we reveal more about the informatic basis of the genome.

Brien.Foerster has studied head binding, if you actually watch the video he compares a normal human skull, a human skull that has been bound and the elengated skull. Head binding can change the shape but not the mass, other curiosities are two plates as opposed to our three, less molars and larger eye sockets.

The skulls were found in region of Peru that have many remarkable megalithic constructions such as the Cusco wall. If you actually watch the video you can see the evidence of precise polygonal construction with water tight seams! Very hard to do with stone hammers and copper chisels that the Inca were using. So it's not unreasonable to propose that an advanced culture existed in this area and pre dated the Inca by maybe a thousand or more years.

I see no reason to lend credibility to the OP. Why? Vague references to biologists with a new theory of genetic processes, an unnamed geneticist and inferring that a peer reviewed journal will publish this study. Furthermore, the comment regarding Richard Dawkins weakens your argument.

Statements such as this are always the basis in pseudoscience and conspiracy theories;

It had mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far. But a few fragments I was able to sequence from this sample indicate that if these mutations will hold we are dealing with a new human-like creature, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans.

Edited by ralis

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

So the idea that if a scientist makes money from his knowledge on a subject and engages in self promotion, be it Inca history or half baked evolutionary ideas, his research and credibility is therefore compromised?

Take Richard.Dawkins he was a professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, not bad for a humble zoologist. His book the God Delusion has sold more than 2 million copies in English alone and I imagine that he dose quite well out of the lucrative speaking circuit. There Dawkins enchants the faithful with his, in the words of evolutionary biologist Micheal Lynch "profoundly misleading views" on natural selection. Dawkins childish and anthropentric rhetoric in the book ,the Selfish Gene, treats genes as purposive entities with goals and powers that go far beyond those of a mere chemical like DNA.

On the subject of credentials, you might want to familarize youself with the work of mathematical biologist Motoo Kimura, his research found that on the genetic level most mutations are neutral. Essentially the majority of evolutionary changes are caused by random gentic drift not by Darwian selection. The problem is, to the extent to which neutral theory is true, Darwins theory is not.

The "vague reference" to a biologist is the geneticist James A Shapio, his book "Evolution A View from the 21st century", might disabuse you of your schooling in Dawkins misleading mechanistic cash cow. Shapio details the current understanding on the genome as a read/write system, essentialy nature is engaged in genetical engeenering. This may help us answer among other things...why the fossil record dose not support a strictly gradualistic account, how and when do species arise and the fact that "major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of SUDDEN EMERGENCE".. that last part is from Eugene Koonin, check him out to familirize your self with more credentials.

So credentials, self promotion, buisness, epistemology are not so consistency in the orthodoxy either.

As for Brien.Foerster`s credentials, the ad hominem article you posted as your rebuttal noted that he has a science diploma, he has also been quite vocal about debunking a lot of the claims from the ancient alien crowd but the journalist did not mention that. A fringe subject like this will always attract those types, Brien can not be blamed if they are hijacking his work at popularizing the enigmatic Paracas culture. From my observation Brien麓s approach is grounded in empirical and measurable evidence but he also has to take advantage of publicity channels that are less than ideal, he believes his work is important. Which brings us to the subject of the "unnamed geneticist".Given that the orthodoxy would not be seen dead handling the Paracas skulls and their disdain for any research that challenges the status quo, keeping the identity of the geneticist private is prudent. A mainstream scientist treating this subject seriously is tantamount to career suicide.

Lastly the issue that all the skeptics are avoiding is the obvious anatomical differences, chiefly the Paracas skulls only contain one parietal plate.

Edited by themiddleway
  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

So the idea that if a scientest makes money from his knowledge on a subject and engages in self promotion, be it Inca history or half baked evolutionary ideas, his research and credibility is therefore compromised?

Take Richard.Dawkins he was a professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, not bad for a humble zoologist. His book the God Delusion has sold more than 2 million copies in English alone and I imagine that he dose quite well out of the lucrative speaking circuit. There Dawkins enchants the faithful with his, in the words of evolutionary biologist "profoundly misleading views" on natural selection. Dawkins childish and anthropentric rhetoric in the book ,the Selfish Gene, treats genes as purposive entities with goals and powers that go far beyond those of a mere chemical like DNA.

On the subject of credentials, you might want to familarize youself with the work of mathematical biologist Motoo Kimura, his research found that on the genetic level most mutations are neutral. Essentially the majority of evolutionary changes are caused by random gentic drift not by Darwian selection. The problem is, to the extent to which neutral theory is true, Darwins theory is not.

The "vague reference" to a biologist is the geneticist James A Shapio, his book "Evolution A View from the 21st century", might disabuse you of your schooling in Dawkins misleading mechanistic cash cow. Shapio details the current understanding on the genome as a read/write system, essentialy nature is engaged in genetical engeenering. This may help us answer among other things...why the fossil record dose not support a strictly gradualistic account, how and when do species arise and the fact that "major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of SUDDEN EMERGENCE".. that last part is from Eugene Koonin, check him out to familirize your self with more credentials.

So credentials, self promotion, buisness, epistemology are not so consistency in the orthodoxy either.

As for Brien.Foerster`s credentials, the ad hominem article you posted as your rebuttal noted that he has a science diploma, he has also been quite vocal about debunking a lot of the claims from the ancient alien crowd but the journalist did not mention that. A fringe subject like this will always attract those types, Brien can not be blamed if they are hijacking his work at popularizing the enigmatic Paracas culture. From my observation Brien麓s approach is grounded in empirical and measurable evidence but he also has to take advantage of publicity channels that are less than ideal, he believes his work is important. Which brings us to the subject of the "unnamed geneticist".Given that the orthodoxy would not be seen dead handling the Paracas skulls and their disdain for any research that challenges the status quo, keeping the identity of the geneticist private is prudent. A mainstream scientest treating this subject seriously is tantamount to career suicide.

Lastly the issue that all the skeptics are avoiding is the obvious anatomical differences, chiefly the Paracas skulls only contain one parietal plate.

Science diploma in what field? The idea of 'sudden emergence' has been extensively debated here in the U.S. by fundamentalists/creationists that adhere to the young earth theory. That argument is being used to teach so called creation science in the public schools.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Joker doesn't like this stuff! :P

(yeah yeah yeah ancient archetype)

Morphic resonance?- or they all had the same idea to wrap their heads- they must have seen it on TV :blink:

The brain wouldn't grow to fill the gap in their wrapped heads- would it? :ph34r:

Ever see Akhenaten?

You believe In Frabato?

This you laugh at joker- but you want to do Enochian Magick? :wacko:

Open mind joker - open mind! <_<

(yeah yeah yeah ancient archetype)

Do you skry? Do you argue with the summoned entities? :D

Edited by SonOfTheGods

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Akhenaten_(1351-1334)_-_Walters_2288.jpg

The conehead skulls of Peru have been dismissed as the result of 'binding,' but these are not bound skulls. In fact, they aren't even human skulls. They do not have the right bone structure to be human and they have far larger brain cases. In fact, the native practice of skull binding may have represented an effort to make themselves appear more like these creatures.

The_Riddler_%28BF%29.jpg

Edited by SonOfTheGods
  • Like 2

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The Joker doesn't like this stuff! :P

(yeah yeah yeah ancient archetype)

Morphic resonance?- or they all had the same idea to wrap their heads- they must have seen it on TV :blink:

The brain wouldn't grow to fill the gap in their wrapped heads- would it? :ph34r:

Ever see Akhenaten?

You believe In Frabato?

This you laugh at joker- but you want to do Enochian Magick? :wacko:

Open mind joker - open mind! <_<

(yeah yeah yeah ancient archetype)

Do you skry? Do you argue with the summoned entities? :D

I do have an open mind, but I will not open my mind to nonsense such as 'sudden emergence' which is code for young earth/creationists.

You have no clue as to who I am, know me or met me. So stop making unfounded judgments.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I do have an open mind, but I will not open my mind to nonsense such as 'sudden emergence' which is code for young earth/creationists.

It's a code for creationists?

Says who?

Sudden Emergence -Maybe it's a code for INTERVENTION?

You have no clue as to who I am, know me or met me. So stop making unfounded judgments.

No unfounded judgements- you just disagree with everyone/everything just for the hell of it IMO :)

Edited by SonOfTheGods
  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

It's a code for creationists?

Says who?

Sudden Emergence -Maybe it's a code for INTERVENTION?

Intervention by what or whom? Why are you shouting? All caps=shouting.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The conehead skulls of Peru have been dismissed as the result of 'binding,' but these are not bound skulls. In fact, they aren't even human skulls. They do not have the right bone structure to be human and they have far larger brain cases.

Exactly!

Binding does not increase brain volume in humans!

In fact, the native practice of skull binding may have represented an effort to make themselves appear more like these creatures.

Intelligent insight!

This was btw also my own conclusion when concerning myself with the case of these skulls.

  • Like 2

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Exactly!

Binding does not increase brain volume in humans!

Intelligent insight!

This was btw also my own conclusion when concerning myself with the case of these skulls.

I want proof of brain size in these skulls instead of conjecture.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I want proof of brain size in these skulls instead of conjecture.

Then do the research like I have ;)

I have learned in the past, dealing with you is impossible.

Whatever "proof" I show you- will never be good enough.

if you want to learn, stick with your own resources, which will always keep you firmly planted inside your own private box

You believe Interdimensional entities can interfere with a human events? (Magick)

But you do not believe Extraterrestrial entities can interfere with human events? (DNA+ Gene, etc)

Where's your logic at ralis?

Edited by SonOfTheGods
  • Like 2

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

This is interesting, but Ralis will say "cut and paste" "ridiculous sources": ;)

This is for everyone else with an open mind :D

http://www.perceptions.couk.com/authority.html

Check these strange `shapings' / `deformities' through human history - and earlier?
`Head-binding' should not cause such monstrous increases in brain-size.
Parents have no logical reasons - a priori - to take such risks.

Egypt


egy1.jpgGraham Phillips speculates that Aken-aten (originally named Amenhotep IV) was the Pharaoh of the Hebrew "Exodus".
Phillips thinks the incompetence of his reign, with other events, permitted the revolt of the oppressed groups in Egypt - a slave State.

King Akenaten, product of a long and ancient Egyptian dynasty, is shown at left, leading religious rites.
From `Act of God' by Graham Phillips - Sidgwick & Jackson 1998 - ISBN 0-283-06314-9

Court flattery - aten2.jpgaken1.jpg
Sculptors hid the sloping forehead and elongated skull by portraying him wearing high hats or helmets.
Roman Museum of Antiquities
& Luxor Museum



Update 2009 - The occupant of the `mystery tomb' of the Valley of the Kings (KV 55 Wiki ref.) is now said to be Akenaten - based on DNA testing which indicated he was was the son of Amenhotep III and the father of Tutankhamun, and that his `age-at-death' was consistent with Akenaten's estimated demise.



Below - c-scan comparison of his skull (top two), from KV 55, compared with Tutankhamun's (bottom two).
Images - Zahi Hawass et al


scan-mummy-kv55.jpg
  • Like 2

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites



Nefertiti, reportedly `a princess from a foreign country' became married to Akenaten. Interestly, she seems to have an even more extreme `elongated skull' than the Egyptian ruling elite
Nefertiti_bust.jpgNefertiti-berlin-mus.jpg
Neues Museum, Berlin & Egyptian Museum Berlin respectively

Akhenaten-and-Family1.jpgNefertiti was clearly a strong-minded and self-sufficient person, though during the Amarna period the family is represented as a close and fond one. This rather intimate drawing of the family was found on a stela from Amarna.

There are some reports that Nefertiti ruled alone for a period after Akenaten died (or disappeared).



There were six female children to Nefertiti and Akenaten. Busts have been found of two of them; one could be of Meritaten, the eldest, who later became Queen, and was probably married to her own father.
egy2.jpgamarna.jpg
Berlin Museum & Cairo Museum respectively

Meritaten and then maybe Smenkhkare were succeeded by Smenkhkare's younger brother, uncle or cousin Tutankhamun (see his skull above), who was the last of that dynasty.

  • Like 2

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites


Ramesses_II_%27Younger.jpgA few generations - and several Pharaohs - later we see Ramesses II (`The Great') being similarly flattered by statues.
An Egyptian `canon of proportions' dictated how rulers were portrayed (except maybe for a strange break in Akenaten's Amarna period).

In reality, Ramesses' skull (below left), and that of his (suspected) first son Amun-her-khepeshef (below right), seem eerily similar to those of the two earlier Pharaohs (above).

Amun-her-khepeshef skull-image from www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6614215/


Mummy_of_Ramesses_II_-_02.jpgAmun-her-khepeshef.jpgAmun-her-khepeshef.GIF



Historical note: In the 1st Century, Egyptian priest-scribes, then keepers of the world's oldest known records, claimed that the earliest rulers of Egypt were non-humans :- immortals. "Mortals have been Kings of their country, they say, for a little less than 5,000 years" - from Diodorus (wiki ref)




Eurasia


Hippocrates (wiki ref) (c. 460 BCE - c. 370 BCE) writing of eastern Europe or beyond -
from http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/h/hippocrates/airs/index.html

"14. I will pass over the smaller differences among the nations, but will now treat of such as are great either from nature, or custom; and, first, concerning the Macrocephali [tribe or `nation' said to be living beyond the Bosphorus / Black Sea or maybe even further i.e Scythians - RD] There is no other race of men which have heads in the least resembling theirs.

At first, usage was the principal cause of the length of their head, but now nature cooperates with usage. They think those the most noble who have the longest heads.

It is thus with regard to the usage: immediately after the child is born, and while its head is still tender, they fashion it with their hands, and constrain it to assume a lengthened shape by applying bandages and other suitable contrivances whereby the spherical form of the head is destroyed, and it is made to increase in length."
- Hippocrates (c. 400 BCE)



Huns (wiki ref)
"Late Roman carnelian intaglio attila34.jpg that shows the image of King Rua (Roas, or Rugilas, or Rugila), father of Attila the Hun and founder of the Hun Nation (although this could also have been one of Attila's names).
A miniature inscription verifies this image... The helmet seen is purposely made to be worn at an angle (either due to deformation of the skull, or mimicking skull deformation). ... It is known from Hun skull finds that at least some Huns flattened their skulls (this binding process began when they were babies)"

http://www.kingarthurbanner.com/artifacts.htm#attila
By permission of David Xavier Kenney


  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Sometime around the 5th Century CE, members of `foreign' elites - with elongated skulls - occupied positions of power or distinction in Europe. The graves of several such persons, usually buried alone and with rich trappings and grave-goods, have been found in France and Germany etc.
Hunskull.jpgFrance_Obernai_02.jpg

This is the skull of a member of such elites, found in a Meringovian era setting, in Alsace, eastern France.

Archeologists think the `elongation' of the skull meant it belonged to a member of an elite warrior-type group. I.e. Hunnish, Samartian or similar, whose rulers practised `skull-deforming'.
hun-fem-elite.jpg

Here's an artist's reconstruction of the face of an elite Hunnish woman.


Around 900 CE, a mysterious clan or tribe or family group appeared in southern Europe. They early on assumed the name of `The House of Este'.

Head shapes are what we've already seen - sloping forehead, lizard-like protuberance of the back of skull.
Sort-of cousins Leonello & Ginevra d'Este - c. 1435-1445
Leonello-d%27Este.jpgGinevra-d%27Este.jpg

First recorded in Lombardy, they quickly seized positions of power in several other states, eventually becoming `owners of Europe' - through their more recent descendants. And maybe of Russia too
see Ivan VI.

The real origins of the `Estes' could be Levantine (maybe as usurers), or Hunnish (below), or perhaps Scythians from beyond the Black Sea, as discussed by Hippocrates (further below).

  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Malta

malta_skulls_article.jpg

WARNING - this is partly apocryphal, because the authorities seem to have withdrawn from public view all of the skulls excavated from the Maltese `temples'.

However, searching has found some early archeological publications which those `authorities' cannot censor (out of print).

From `Malta and the Mediterranean Race' by R. N. Bradley - 1912

"I have also tried to show that the annihilation of the pre-Aryans is by no means established in fact, and that the long-headed race has not only endured, but its influence has been, and is, felt in a remarkable manner."

From NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE January to June, 1920 VOLUME XXXVII

"From an examination of the skeletons of the polished-stone age, it appears that the early inhabitants of Malta were a race of long-skulled people of lower medium height, akin to the early people of Egypt, who spread westward along the north coast of Africa, whence some went to Malta and Sicily and others to Sardinia and Spain."

video Klaus Dona - Discusses and shows the Maltese and South American Skulls (+ Skeletons)

Siberia

elongatedskulls.jpg

Recent 2009 news of discovery of `elongated skulls' near Omsk, Siberia. Article and short video.

QUOTE: - "Scholars at the Omsk Museum of History and Culture have no conclusive answer as to the origins of these skulls, which were found in burial mounds that are believed to date from the 4th century AD

Because of the skulls' bizarre shape they do not show them to the public, fearing that people might be too shocked. `This really shocked and even frightened people. Because the skull's shape was unusual for a human' said Igor Skandakov, director of the Omsk Museum of History and Culture.

Scientists said that the skulls have marks that could be due to artificial deformation of a normal skull. They surmise that the ancient communities deliberately deformed the skulls of their children, by applying force through a head press, almost from the moment of birth. Why they might have done this is not clear."

www.digitaljournal.com/article/268227

North America #1

native-americans-eastern-usa.jpgDiagram -

Types of cranial deformation in the Eastern US (Neumann, 1995).

Also see North-Western `head-flattening' - The Chinook (wiki).

Later note - it seems that some Native North Americans had a tradition which might prevent authoritarianism / elitism. They used 'cradle-boards' to flatten the back of the skull.

North America #2

onavas-900ce.jpgRegion: - North-western Mexico

These skulls, found just south of Sonora were dated to about 900CE to 1000CE.

Most were `deformed' (i.e. by post-natal binding) and some also had their teeth filed into `V' shapes.

North America #3 - (and Meso-America)

Region: - Mexico, Belize & Guatemala etc.

It seems the original people of the area were rural and egalitarian - i.e. democratic, living equally. That's because earlier and later communities had no `ruler's houses' or `palaces'.

From `The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings' by David Drew 1999 Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81699-3

But around 800 BCE a more martial group evolved or arrived.

It's speculated here and here, they may have been migrants displaced from a Mediterranean civilization. Intermittent waves of migration may have arrived at Central and South American shores, one at least from Africa.

Note: we're told the Paris Codex shows the Mayan zodiac as "a menagerie of very diverse animals not unlike the zodiac of Old World Egypt". - [told by Anthony F Aveni in `Astronomy before the telescope' - British Museum Press 1999 ISBN 0-7141-2733-7]

They had low, sloping foreheads with flattening and extension of the skull. This was unlike that of the local and now surviving peoples.

See Lacand贸n photo below.

The intruders lived in `palatial' cities and had vast monuments built for them by a (captive?) labour-force.

slopehed.gifmayan-lord1.jpg

A decapitated Mayan lord from Chiapas, and a Mayan lord of Copan. Note the low, flattened foreheads.

To quote Drew : "the head of a Maya lord with typical aquiline nose and sloping forehead, the conventional (Mayan) ideal of (male) beauty".

`Perceptions' (alone, apparently) believes the `Maya' were intruding dominators who ruled Lacand贸ns and others for 1,000 years or more, leading to ruling elite's degeneration, until the final "Maya Collapse" around 800 CE, when - like Egyptian and Peruvian elites - the `Maya' went extinct. See - Changing faces of Meso-America.

  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites


maya-elite-skull.gif"The Maya elite practised changing the shape of their offsprings' skulls to resemble the Maize God's elongated head by tying two boards front and back against the infant's head"
from `Civilization.CA'



lacand.jpgA Lacand贸n Indian child and her family (photographed with anthropologist / archeologist J.Eric Thompson - 1946)

This open-faced youngster could be any healthy modern child. Note the high forehead.

`Perceptions' believes the Lacand贸ns are actually 'altruist survivors' of slavery under the `Maya'.

Note: Lacand贸ns remain oppressed by dominators today.

There's a summary of possibly erroneous `history' of Meso- and South America - at `Real Maya'. Speculation about the possible real history of much earlier `European' & `African' migrants, refugees or invaders is at `Westward'. [big page - needs a moment to load].



South America


Northern Argentina
From Aim茅 Tschiffely's account of digging up some pre-historic graves at Tilcara (Argentina), during his c. 1926 horse-back journey from Buenos Aires to Washington DC.

QUOTE: "In some graves we found pottery and stone implements and in all were well-preserved skeletons. What particularly struck me about these was the strange shape of the skulls which appeared as if the forehead had been pushed back."

p. 42. `Southern Cross to Pole Star - Tschiffely's Ride' - 1933


inca-La_Moneda-bolivia.jpg


Bolivia
Inca skull at La Moneda Museum, Bolivia

  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites


Peru
Quote: "Strewn around in all directions were sun-bleached or yellowing skulls, the outlines of each cranium deformed to an extraordinary, elongated shape."

peru1.jpg


Quote:- "deliberately produced by binding the heads of infants between a pair of wooden boards" ... later, Tello was to find "babies' skulls with the boards still attached"

Indicating that a subject people were complying with an adopted or imposed 'ideal'.

From `Lines to the Mountain Gods' by Evan Hadingham
ISBN 0-245-54559-X

  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites